What I want to do in this video, is to think of the origin of algebra, the origin of Algebra. And the word, especially in association with the ideas which now represents Algebra, come from, come from this book or actually it’s a page of the book you see here. The English translation of this book is, “The Compendious book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing” It was written by a Persian mathematician who lived in Baghdad in, hmm, I think it was the 8th or 9th century Or yes, it was actually 820 BC when he wrote this book. VC And Algebra is the Arabic word what, here’s the actual title he gave it, which is the Arabic title. Algebra means “recovery” or “completion” repair ………. repair or completion …….. completion And he associated it in this book with a very specific action, where he took something from one side of an equation to the other side of the equation. But we can actually see it here. I do not know Arabic, but I actually know a few languages \u200b\u200bthat “borrowed” a bit from Arabic or maybe it’s the other way around! But it says Al Kitab and i know just enough Urdu or Hindi to understand a good Indian movie. But Al Kitab, “Kitab” means “book”. So this part is “book”. I think Al-Mukhtasar means “concise” because I do not know the word for “concise” and it sounds like it. Fi Hisab, “Hisab” means “calculation” in Hindi or Urdu so this is “calculation”. Al-Gabr is the root. This is the popular Algebra. This is where it occurs. So this is for “completion”. You can see it as completion … completion and then Wa … Al-Muqabala it actually means “balancing” completion and balancing. So if we wanted to translate it and I know this is not a video for translating Arabic but the book … the book well i think it\’s “concise calculation by completion and balancing is the rough translation of this. But this is the origin of the word “Algebra”. And this is a very very very important book. Not only because this is the first time the word Algebra has been used, but many people saw this book as the first time which Algebra adopted many of its modern ideas, ideas of balancing an equation, the abstract problem itself, not to solve problems only once here and there. But Al-khwarizmi was not the first person. And just to get an idea of \u200b\u200bwhere it all happens, his “hangout place” was Baghdad. So, this part of the world is very common in the history of algebra. But he hung out there in the 8th or 9th century. So when I draw a timeline, so that we can appreciate it all. So this is ………….. the timeline. And whether you are a believer or not, most of our modern dates are based on the birth of Jesus. So I’ll say so, so it’s here. Maybe we’re putting a cross here, to indicate it, but when we are not believers, we say “general era” “before the general era”; when we are believers, say our VC which means “the year of our God”. Anno … I do not know Latin … “Anno Domini” as I understand “the year of our god” And then if we will, in the Christian context, instead of “before the general era”, can we say “before Christ”, VC But anyway, so this is 1000 in the general era. It’s 2000 in the general era. And we are at least while making this video, I’m sitting right here. And then, this is 1000 before the general era. And this is 2000 before the general era. So the first signs, that’s what we can get. I’m sure if we could look any further, could we still get evidence of different societies and people and came across many ideas in Algebra. But our first records of people who really explored the ideas on which Algebra is based, comes from ancient Babylon, about 200 years before the general era, for Christ. So about, about there where there were stone tablets, where people seemed to be busy to explore some of the fundamental ideas of Algebra. They did not use the same symbols. They did not represent the numbers in the same way. But the Algebra they were working on, was once again part of this part of the world. Babylon, was about, …… right here. And Babylon has kind of retained the tradition of Sumeria. The whole region was called Mesopotamia. – Greek for “between two rivers” – But these are the first signs of people we know what started to do what we call real real Algebra. And if you go forward and I’m sure even our historians do not know all the different people who use Algebra But the biggest contributions to Algebra we saw here in Babylon 2000 years ago. And if we go to about 200 – 300 BC about right here, do you have a Greek man who lived in Alexanderia.